Some of ther easons for sensitive teeth are :
1) Cavities - a cavity is a "hole" which develops in the tooth. A cavity must becleaned out by a dentist, and filled with a filling material.
2) Gum recession - gum recession or shrinking gums, can result in sensitivity. As long as the gum covers the tooth properly, the tooth is protected from sensitivity. Once the gum shrinks, it exposes a part of the tooth, which can result in the tooth becoming sensitive. This is due to exposure to elements of the saliva, or even when there is a quick temperature change in the mouth (e.g. drinking hot tea, or eating cold ice cream)
3) A defective filling or crown can also result in sensitivity. In such case, the filling or crown must be changed.
4) Thinning, or erosion of the enamel can result in sensitivity. The sensitivity can be eliminated by rebuilding the defective section of the tooth, or sometimes a medicament can be applied to the sensitive tooth surface, which will calm the sensitivity.